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TeleMedicine

3 months ago

Introduction

TeleMedicine refers to analysis, identification of health problem and caring for patients who are at a remote distance using communication technologies. TeleMedicine has become widespread health care delivery in various developing nations of the world. TeleMedicine comes under the set of TeleHealth. TeleHealth includes non-clinical activities like medical education, administrative meetings. 
 
Why TeleMedicine?

TeleMedicine is a way to reduce costs at the same time providing consumers with the convenience they want like reduced travel time, fewer hardships. It solves the current problems like shortage of qualified medical professionals. The communication technology has advanced to an extent where doctors can provide good virtual consultations. 
 
Increasing popularity of TeleMedicine

Technology is transforming every sector including Healthcare. Modern information and communication technologies (ICTs), like computers, the Internet, and cell phones, are transforming how individuals communicate with each other, seek and exchange information, and enriching people's life. This has great potential to solve global health care problems. 
 
Few factors which have made widespread adoption of TeleMedicine  possible are

● The availability of High-speed internet access and mobile phone

● People already have computers and smartphone using which they access the internet and are using telecommunication technology in different contexts.

● It provides efficient and cost-effective care to elder patients who require extra care than younger generation 
 
Types of TeleMedicine

The practice of TeleMedicine is divided into three types of solutions

● Store and forward - This is also called asynchronous TeleMedicine.

It is a method in which the patient’s medical information like imaging reports, diagnostic reports, videos and other records are stored and forwarded to a medical care professionals for remote assessment of patient’s condition. In this method, medical care professionals can analyze the patient's information effectively at their convenient time. In this solution, a medical specialist can be in a different timezone. This solution is applied in radiology, dermatology, and ophthalmology.

● Remote monitoring (Telemonitoring)

clinical measurements of patients can be monitored from a distance. This is beneficial for older patients at home who have illness persisting for a long time like heart disease, diabetes, and even asthma. 
 
● Live Interactive or Real Time TeleMedicine - Synchronous TeleMedicine

Video conferencing facility gives doctors to offer immediate advice to patients who require medical care. It is useful in primary care and followup visits. These technologies used in TeleMedicine are designed to protect patients privacy and follows HIPAA(Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) standards 
 
TeleMedicine Technology Overview

The Principle element of TeleMedicine are

1. Equipment - Telemedicine systems capture voice and image data

2. Transmission method or Connectivity 
 
1. Equipment - TeleMedicine Units ● Room Systems with viewing screen and microphone are stationed in a room. They are used for continuing education, medical therapy, and administrative meetings. ● Mobile Systems have small footprints and are easily moved. Telemedicine units which can be moved to different places ● Desktop Systems - Small units which can be placed in clinician's office 
 
Equipment -Principal  Common Components

1. Camera is used for clinicians to see the patients and patients to see the clinicians.

2. Viewing Screen - Sometimes multiple screens are available so that medical provider can view the patients as well as the diagnostic reports and other medical information.

3. Microphone allows clinicians and patients to talk to one another.

4. Codec - coding and decoding. It is the heart of the system. This compresses the outgoing audio and video data and transmit the information to the far end decompress the incoming information. It also provides security encryption.

5. Scopes and Peripherals          

Use of peripheral equipment like specialized cameras and diagnostic scopes.          

A specialist can examine without having to be in the same location. General use of cameras allows dermatologist to view the skins. ENT specialist uses Otoscope to view inside of the patient's ears. Stethoscope allows listening to heart and lung Sounds. Non-mydriatic cameras allows capturing the retinal images in case of Diabetic Retinopathy screenings  
 
2. Transmission method or Connectivity The network is necessary to establish connectivity between locations and transmit clinical data. Telemedicine equipment needs to be linked together for interaction. 

 
Top TeleMedicine Specialities

TeleMedicine can be applied to any specialty. It can be said as a virtual hospital. 1. Teleradiology - get a consultation on patient’s health condition by sending x-rays and health records securely to a radiologist at another location 2. Teleophthalmology - examines a patient’s eyes and provide treatment from a distance. 3. Teledermatology- images of rash or skin disorder are sent for remote diagnosis. 80% of dermatology cases involving rashes are resolved by TeleMedicine. 
 

Benefits of TeleMedicine

1. Elderly people with chronic illness can be treated by doctors miles away without leaving their Eldercare facility. 2. A worker who becomes ill or injured on oil well who is 100s of miles away from land can be treated by doctors remotely via TeleMedicine. 
3. Video conferencing facility helps medical practitioner interact with the patient almost immediately with a reduction in cost and increase convenience. 4. Patients can be seen sooner by doctors for treatment 5. The cost of patients traveling to
hospital and waiting time are drastically reduced 6. Expert Medical advice, one on one consultation, 2nd opinion, online medical record 7. It protects one's Privacy and from the comfort of your home 8. Patient Health records are stored securely following the HIPAA standards 9. Patients can be diagnosed and treated earlier which leads to improved outcomes and cheap treatments. 
 
 Conclusion

TeleMedicine offers extraordinary potential for delivering faster, better, less expensive and more convenient care. As the TeleMedicine sector evolves and expands, it provides enormous opportunities for the health care profession, particularly in its ability to reach, engage, and improve the health of patients who might otherwise not have access to care

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